Bowie chic in one des Mr. Fish’s man-dresses top top the startseite of his album The man Who Sold die World.

Du schaust: Fred sonic smith todesursache


Patty smith at her manly best in a portrait by photographer robert Mapplethorpe ~ above the cover of herstellung album Horses (1975).


A. Kraig Copetas lugged Burroughs und Bowie together weil das Rolling Stone an 1974.


Going to die divided stadt of West berlin during the Cold war continues that provocation with proximity to the Communist “enemy.” However, Iggy Pop, Lou Reed, und Bowie did not allude straight to die Baader meinhof gang/Red army faction or various other radical politics movements in their songs. Weil das more on this period and the political climate in West Germany, lakers the omnibus film, Germany bei Autumn (1978).


Patti schmied writes about Ivan Kral together a talented musicians an Just Kids, however he emerges together a crucial punk filmmaker an his teamwork with Amos Poe top top The blank Generation (1976)—a house movie-rock documentary-avant-garde hybrid that helped kommen sie disseminate neu York punk style.


Juan Carlos Kase castigates Celine Danhier’s Blank City (2010) for its shallow treatment of neu York’s punk/”no wave” scene. However, the fails kommen sie adequately address the continuing appeal des these films to today’s frau filmmakers, who obtain inspiration from new York’s punk performers und filmmakers because these punk frauen broke dafür many barriers kommen sie female artistic freedom an the 1970s und 1980s.


The david Bowie zu sein exhibition organized von the Victoria and Albert Museum bei London color etc on ns performer’s extensive collection zu chronicle his rise to stardom through very closely selected artifacts.


Image of Bowie in “Prison cell Pieta” indigenous Tanja Stark’s “Confronting Bowie’s MysteriousCorpses”

Punk, glitter und glam redrafted: walk downtown v Patti Smith und David Bowie

review von Gina Marchetti

Cinque, Toija, Christopher Moore, und Sean Redmond, eds.Enchanting david Bowie: Space/Time/Body/Memory. Neu York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. Print. 355 pp. Grant, charles L., Geoffrey Marsh, und Victoria Broackes, eds. David Bowie Is. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 2013. Print. 320 pp. Hawkins, Joan, ed.Downtown Film and TV culture 1975-2001. Chicago, USA: Intellect Books, 2015. Print. 308 pp. Smith, Patti. Just Kids. London: Bloomsbury, 2010. 308 pp.


Grant, charles L., Geoffrey Marsh, und Victoria Broackes, eds. David Bowie Is.

Cinque, Toija, Christopher Moore, und Sean Redmond, eds.Enchanting david Bowie: Space/Time/Body/Memory.

Hawkins, Joan, ed.Downtown Film and TV culture 1975-2001. Smith, Patti. Just Kids

“Je est un autre.” (“I zu sein another.”) —Arthur Rimbaud

Patti Smith and David Bowie were born just days apart—Smith an December 1946 bei the blume States and Bowie an January 1947 an the united Kingdom—as members of the faster cohort of the post-WWII infant boom. Both came from usual backgrounds and moved to ns “big city” of new York and London respectively, getting a foothold an the world des arts and letters with smith working in a manhattan bookshop and Bowie weist a Soho heralding agency. Soho, London, und SoHo, new York, share several common characteristics that attractive Smith and Bowie kommen sie these areas.

While both Soho and SoHo schutz undergone substantial gentrification an recent years, their links to this world of avant-garde styles, subversive fashions, secret aesthetics, and personal rebellion remain. Bei London, ns upscale musicals des the west End, die sleaze damit verbundenen with the sex industry, und Chinatown border ns neighborhood. An New York, SoHo, merging through Chelsea, die Bowery, Chinatown, wenig Italy, Alphabet City, and, des course, Greenwich Village, lies at the heart of Downtown Manhattan, where klein factories metamorphosed right into haunts zum avant-garde artists, dramaturges and musicians as the city evolved in the year after World war II. Together opposed kommen sie highbrow Uptown and the glitz und commercial glamor des Times Square and Broadway in Midtown, Manhattan’s Downtown attracts bohemians and marginalized voices on the cutting-edge von cultural innovations. In both London und New York, these city incubators produced ns stellar talents von the Baby boom generation. Patti Smith und David Bowie found their creative peers in these trendy enclaves. Known heute primarily together rock singer-songwriters, both Smith und Bowie had solid backgrounds bei the visual arts, literature, und theatre, und they blossomed in these bastions of underground society which sustained their multi-art und intermedia talents.

As mode icons, Smith and Bowie carry out a striking, symmetrically androgynous pair—Bowie chic an Mr. Fish’s man-dresses and Smith elegant in thin trousers, narrow lapel jackets, und string ties. In the 1960s, die Women’s Movement, Stonewall, und a deep disgust with ns machismo associated with armed forces operations bei Vietnam set ns stage for cultural experimentation with gender and sexual orientation v style. However, wie someone weist a society asked Patti smith if she was “androgynous,” she had zu ask what that meant. Ns reply was “You know, like Mick Jagger.” (Smith, Just Kids, 140) david Bowie was notfall quite on die rock radar at ns time. Schmied continues, “Whatever it meant, with nur a haircut, ich miraculously turned androgynous overnight.” (140) She also includes an amusing anecdote about her zuerst meeting through poet Allen Ginsberg an which the mistakes her zum a “very quite boy” (123) and buys herstellung a sandwich before realizing his error. In David Bowie Is, unterschrift Kermode estimates the stern as saying, “I was the androgyne zum the time” (284), und Bowie sings around gender-bending and sexual transgressions in songs such together “Rebel, Rebel” (1974) und “Jean Genie” (1972) through makeup, dyed hair, und extravagant costumes.

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At the cusp of the sex-related revolution, Smith und Bowie took massive chances with sex norms und sexual identities. Bowie proud proclaimed, “I in gay,” in a 1972 Melody Maker interview. However his heterosexual marriages and children dampened die impact des the statement, and some gay men were rotate off by his inauthenticity. Smith’s lover robert Mapplethorpe proved to be an ext convincing when he come out zu her and challenged die world of photography through his sensuous bild of flowers und penises. Tragically, Mapplethorpe died von AIDS in 1989, and Smith pays tender tribute to herstellung friend, lover, and muse in her award-winning memoir Just Kids written about a decade after Mapplethorpe’s passing. Beyond this, though, much like Hemingway’s Moveable Feast (1964), Just Kids offers a portrait von a stadt at a particular moment an history über focusing on die bohemian individualities creating ns avant-garde art and literature von their day. Prefer Hemingway, schmied sometimes safety too much time name-dropping, but produziert autobiographical account of herstellung years on ns Lower east Side can deshalb be very tender und moving through vivid portraits von the feast of characters she encountered an New York’s Soho und Greenwich Village.

Bowie und Smith shared plenty of friends and acquaintances—William S. Burroughs, Iggy Pop, john Cale, and Lou Reed, among others. Smith und Burroughs struck nach oben a friendship wie both stayed at die Chelsea Hotel, and A. Kraig Copetas lugged Burroughs and Bowie together zum Rolling Stone an 1974. When Burroughs spicy out kommen sie Bowie that he decided a surname relevant with a “wild boy” knife that could cut both ways, die two became schon fast friends. Bowie used the author’s aleatory cut-up method on succeeding albums, working through Brian Eno who aided introduce die element of chance into their musical collaborations. In fact, assemblages und bricolage define both Smith und Bowie’s aesthetic, and they easily borrow, quote, and allude to a vast range of other artists, musicians, und writers in their oeuvre.

Both admired andy Warhol, the Factory, and The Velvet Underground,<1> und they invested some of their most productive years in New York city as part des the Downtown step described in Joan Hawkins’ anthology. Lock hung the end with the Chelsea hotel crowd und frequented Max’s Kansas City, CBGB, und other venues favored by New york bohemians in the mid-1970s. However, they also had passionate attachments zu continental Europe—Smith kommen sie Paris und Bowie zu Berlin—as well together close ties to Ann Arbor-Detroit rock—Patti schmied married zu Fred “Sonic” schmied (1980-1994) von the MC5 und Bowie rooming through Iggy Pop des The Stooges in West berlin (1977-8).

Patti schmied lionizes Arthur Rimbaud and many other French sexual “outlaws,” that defy heteronormative, patriarchal constraints. She so greatly admires die rock und roll heroes of herstellung generation, who uncovered a home-away-from-home in the bohemian Paris in the year leading nach oben to and following may 1968. She renders poetic pilgrimages to places together as ferrit Lachaise Cemetery, where Jim Morrison and Oscar Wilde, among others, are buried, zu pay tribute to her muses. Bowie has actually a facility relationship to Berlin und its music. During his time there, he melded his interests in Weimar numbers such together Brecht und Weill v a recognition of the international popularity des electronic bands such as Kraftwerk. However, his flirtations v fascist aesthetics coincide with glam and punk’s appropriation of nazi- imagery as a provocation to die older generation’s glorification von their role bei World war II.

In fact, Bowie met Iggy Pop at Max’s Kansas City, wherein Smith and Mapplethorpe to be regulars, before meeting hoch with him again in Berlin. Punkt points in their careers, Smith and Bowie perform Bertolt Brecht/Kurt Weill songs, und the impact of Weimar on their music, appearance, and performance style tun können be seen bei their use von gender-bending expression des pre-Hitler Berlin’s presume “decadence.” roben Fosse’s film Cabaret (1972), based on Christopher Isherwood’s berlin stories, popularized Weimar style zum a wider audience around ns same time. In fact, berlin plays together a developmental role an Bowie’s oeuvre, three chapters in Enchanting david Bowie by Jennifer Otter Bickerdike and John charles Sparrowhawk, Tiffany Mainman, and Daryl Perrings, explore the star’s relationship zu West Berlin und the impact die divided city had top top his career. Bowie produced Lou Reed’s album Transformer (1972) bei Berlin. ~ above it, die song, “Walk top top the wild Side” referrals many von the transgender and gay personalities relevant with Warhol’s Factory—Holly Woodlawn, liquid Darling, Jackie Curtis, joe Dellesandro, Joe campbell (“Sugar Plum Fairy”), und Jackie Curtis—who deshalb appear in Smith’s Just Kids. In other words, Bowie’s berlin must it is in understood in relation to Downtown new York.

Citing their gender rebelliousness, critics und scholars link Smith and Bowie with the same progenitors including Arthur Rimbaud, charles Baudelaire, Oscar Wilde, Jean Genet, Jean Cocteau, and other sexual “outlaws” questioning sex norms, heteronormativity, and the regulations that administrate our society bodies. From ns visual arts, Smith und Bowie attract on Dada, Surrealism, die Pre-Raphaelites, Aubrey Beardsley, ns Vienna Secession and German Expressionism. They discovered inspiration at die fringes von popular society from film noir to B-movie scientific research fiction und horror. In Just Kids, schmied writes about going to Coney island sideshows v Mapplethorpe, with tod Browning’s Freaks (1932) on their minds. David Bowie’s album startseite for Diamond Dogs (1974) bei which his human body merges with ns hind quarters von a dog ~ above display punkt a freak nur indicates his thinking went along the same lines. New Yorker Susan Sontag wrote her essay on fotograf Diane Arbus, “Freak Show,” in 1973, and an a 1974 tv appearance, david Bowie told besondere Cavett he had actually a book of Arbus’ photographs top top his coffee table. Leslie A. Fiedler released Freaks: Myths und Images of the mystery Self in 1978, making a clean link between mainstream society’s views des physical abnormalities und distain weil das youth subcultures von branding castle “freaks.”



David Bowie developed Lou Reed’s berlin album, Transformer (1972), featuring the hit song “Take a go on the wild Side,” about ns “wild side” des Warhol’s factory on ns Lower ost Side quite than the grausam West Side of Berlin. Robert Mapplethorpe, Patti Smith, und David Bowie all found inspiration in Tod Browning’s Freaks (1932) as they witnessed themselves und the way die gesellschaft viewed castle reflected an Coney island sideshows.
The spectacle des the animal-human hybrid parallels the hermaphrodite’s gender hybridity top top the cover of Diamond Dogs (1974). From Ziggy Stardust to thomas Jerome Newton in Nicolas Roeg’s The man Who Fell kommen sie Earth (1976), Bowie embodies alienation with his an are alien personae. He has actually a knack zum looking bei the mirror und seeing himself as bei “Other.” While notfall a novel experience zum many women, teens, racial, ethnic und other minorities, it comes as in epiphany when experienced through die eyes of in adult, white male.

A symbol of alienated youth, Bowie took on the persona von aliens native outer room such as Ziggy Stardust and Thomas Jerome Newton an nicolas Roeg’s The man Who Fell kommen sie Earth (1976), und his asymmetrical eye analysed in detail by Kevin J. Hunt in Enchanting david Bowie ended up being a vital element an the mise-en-scene des Roeg’s film. Smith, too, became in emblem of alienation, singing, “Baby was a black sheep, baby was a whore.” as a teenage unwed mother who gave produziert baby up zum adoption, she live that song. Gender and the Atlantic be separated Bowie und Smith, yet the new York avant-garde and rock and roll an the mid-1970s lugged them inextricably together as generational icons with enduring legacies.

Taken together, ns four publications reviewed here administer portraits des these 2 extraordinary figures. However, an ext than that, each book opens a window onto a subcultural landscape that has not received the critical scrutiny it merits. Even though these publications do not take nach oben “subcultures” as their main focus, die authors carry out recognize ns significance von various subcultures to ns film, media, visual und recording arts des the era. Joan Hawkins’ Downtown Film and TV Culture (1975-2001) acknowledges the centrality von punk within ns media arts community also as ns importance des LGBTQ subcultures after ~ Stonewall in shaping die culture on ns Lower east Side von Manhattan.

In in interview contained with Nick Zedd, known for coining die term “Cinema des Transgression”(1985), a manifest written in the wake von the neu York punk explosion, the filmmaker eloquently describes the role played von the urban underground an creating dissenting counter-discourses “through happenings, pranks, events, disruptions, satire, comedy and other forms von ridicule v skepticism.” (216) back Hawkins argues for “downtown” as a term prolonging beyond neu York city to shannel Francisco, los Angeles, Detroit, Chicago, and elsewhere, die vast majority des the publication deals with manhattan from the waning of Warhol’s Factory before his death in 1987 to die AIDS epidemic und the rise von LGBTQ activism to counter the homophobia von the times. Ns fact Hawkins made decision on 2001 with the 9/11 collapse von the twin Towers as die terminus des the duration again betrays the fact that the book really faces Manhattan’s media arts community und its particular blend des cosmopolitanism at its core.

As a consequence, Downtown Film and TV Culture serves as a perfect companion kommen sie Patti Smith’s Just Kids, which extends ns temporal frame back to 1967 wie man she zuerst met robert Mapplethorpe in the ost Village, however really concentrates on their arising careers with die rise von punk, glitter, glam, und the sexual transgressions verbunden with queer culture in the mid-1970s overshadowed by the AIDS epidemic in the beforehand 1980s, coming zu a close zum Smith around die time she married Fred “Sonic” Smith bei 1980 und Mapplethorpe’s death an 1989. Arguably, die overlapping years in downtown manhattan from 1975-1990 provide die clearest picture des the ways in which punk, glitter, glam, und its verbunden queer subcultural expressions changed the neu York avant-garde and rewired die connections bolzen music, fashion, film, graphic arts and youth culture. Die Hawkins’ anthology examines phenomena just touched on bei Smith’s account, but Smith’s ability kommen sie delve into produziert own psychic engagement with the Downtown literary, well arts, and rock culture von the time to add considerable emotional depth kommen sie many des the films, videos, television broadcasts, and other motion photos discussed über the contributors to Downtown Film und TV Culture. Together women, too, Hawkins und Smith help zu shape a picture des the Downtown new York arts welt that mirrors how in different way men and women, gay und straight, experienced the punk und glitter/glam subcultures at the time.

Ivan Kral and Amos Poe’s 16mm, black und white, non-sync, non-fiction absent music feature, Blank Generation (1976), brings ns subcultures together on screen through what the directors termed “presence” filmmaking, and several von the chapters in Downtown Film and TV Culture return kommen sie that seminal film. Kral offered as Patti Smith’s guitarist, and, in Just Kids, she defines how she found ihm through an ad she placed an the Village Voice, since die other musician who applied had notfall “warmed up to die idea of a mädchen being die leader.” (Smith 244) Kral had actually left his indigenous Czechoslovakia after the Soviet crackdown on the Prague Spring bei 1968, und he played guitar for Smith, Blondie, und Iggy Pop in Manhattan.

Smith does not talk about Blank Generation in Just Kids, but a buchstabe artist’s statement von Ivan and his wife cindy Kral on the genesis of his teamwork with Amos Poe in Hawkins’ anthology fills in some essential die info about die easy access he had kommen sie his other musicians even with his “physically intrusive” Bolex (Kral, und Kral 58) und cassette recorder. Shooting ns bands playing in venues such together CBGB in 1974-75, Kral performs onstage, hangs out through his bandmates, observes his other musicians together a “home movie” filmmaker, und participates as a member von the audience proactively shaping ns subculture. His “presence” says quite a last about die punk aesthetic, since his participation bei Blank Generation speaks to ns fluid borders between music und motion pictures too as zu punk’s raw DIY style, disregard weil das convention, und blurring of the boundaries between performer, fan, und observer. Downtown Film and TV Culture so includes a thorough analysis of Blank Generation’s significance über Mark Benedetti, in appraisal des its continuing circulation an the digital age von Laurel Westrup, und a very acerbic denunciation von its citation in Celine Danhier’s Blank City (2010) von Juan Carlos Kase. An fact, Kase dismisses Danhier’s film as an “anodyne, anemic document.”

As a French documentarist through no officially training in cinema, Danhier came to herstellung subject as in admirer von American elevation auteurs such together Jim Jarmusch (Gustason, “Celine Danhier draws a ‘Blank’”). Working through producers Aviva Wishnow and Vanessa Roworth, Danhier managed to cajole many of the major figures verbunden with neu York punk/no wave/Cinema von Transgression/ Downtown films des the 1970s und 1980s into appearing an the documentary und lending some very rare footage zum the project. What seems kommen sie be missing an Kase’s assessment of Danhier’s film as well in most von the comment on Blank Generation is the way an which Kral und Poe’s raw, out-of-sync, hand-held, participatory film highlights ns ways in which rock brought together diverse stakeholders bei a step that tested gender norms and sexual mores in such wild terms.

This might be die one of the factors why die female production team von Blank City gravitated towards this particular moment in New York’s independent film history. Bei Blank City, Debbie Harry, command singer des the new Wave maßband Blondie, talks around feeling “like our leben were movies” and that die scene was “cinematic,” alluding to die way she crafted herstellung stage persona as a pastiche of Hollywood’s “dumb blonde” / “blonde bombshell.” Patti Smith, explosive even out des sync in Blank Generation, represents hyper-feminine Harry’s punk polar the contrary as the dark, brooding androgyne. Bands closer to glam such together The neu York Dolls and transgender show Wayne (Jayne) County also appear bei Blank Generation. Also though ns film’s title comes from richard Hell’s punk lament that “we belong to the blank generation,”<2> the performers ~ above stage too as ns members of the audience expand beyond punk und provide a capacious picture of Lower manhattan city that includes gender-benders und sexual outlaws involved in glitter und glam, punk, and intersecting subcultures developing what Hawkins rightly sees as ns Downtown “scene” (xi).

David Bowie Is and Enchanting david Bowie speak zu each various other in bei even more obvious fashion than Downtown Film und TV Culture and Just Kids. Bei 2013, ns Victoria und Albert Museum in London mounted in ambitious exhibition committed to david Bowie, sponsored by the German audio company Sennheiser and the Italian mode house Gucci, highlighting ns importance des the cultural icon together both sound and image. Die lavishly shown David Bowie Is catalogues ns exhibit with an emphasis on Bowie’s contribution kommen sie aural und visual design through materials shown from his very own archive. The exhibit opened after the launch des the album The next Day in January 2013, Bowie’s zuerst studio release in a decade. Two scholastic anthologies came an the wake von the album release und exhibition, Enchanting david Bowie and David Bowie: an essential Perspectives, edited von Eoin Devereux, Aileen Dillane und Martin J. Power, both published in 2015. When this testimonial deals only with Enchanting david Bowie , die latter anthology needs kommen sie be mentioned, due to the fact that both books appear at the same time und take note of Bowie’s career as summed up in the Victoria und Albert Exhibition<3> und relaunched v The new Day. The overlap bolzen the two books indicates ns existence des a coterie von scholars devoted to david Bowie in the emerging field of celebrity studies, defined by an interdisciplinary blending of music, film, media, fashion, design, unterhalten industry und cultural studies. (Another scholarly book, Future Nostalgia: Performing david Bowie, by Shelton Waldrep, deshalb appeared in 2015, published by Bloomsbury.) authors contributing to both publications include ian Chapman, Tiffany Naiman, Dene October, Tanja Stark,<4>and Helene marie Thian. David Bowie Is, together a museum catalogue, stands personally from ns academic anthologies, since it counts on curators, music critics, and popular commentators zum the preponderance des its material.

Even despite David Bowie Is und Enchanting david Bowie organize your subject matter within really different theoretical frames, ns books cover many von the same themes and topics, consisting of Bowie’s cut-up aesthetics und postmodern assemblage, the centrality of berlin to die development des the star’s career, the visual design of his album covers, his feature film roles, space aliens und youth alienation, and, von course, his androgynous star image und sexual allure. Both books, too, follow many of the themes set by the curators at die Victoria und Albert Museum. The zuerst section von Enchanting david Bowie top top “Space” parallels Geoffrey Marsh’s essay licensed has been granted “Astronaut von Inner Spaces” in David Bowie Is. Die third section on the “Body” broadens on many des the clues made über Camille Paglia an “Theatre von Gender: david Bowie at die Climax von the sexual Revolution” an the catalogue. Victoria Broackes’ “Putting out Fire v Gasoline: Designing david Bowie” und Oriole Cullen’s “Changes: Bowie’s Life Story” an David Bowie Is resonate with Helene marie Thian’s analysis des Bowie’s jacket. Album abdecken serve as ns focus of ian Chapman’s and Tanja Stark’s chapters an Enchanting david Bowie as well as Christopher Breward’s piece in the catalogue.

Both volumes on david Bowie solicit mitarbeiter responses from many of their contributors as Bowie “fans” or witnesses to the various time durations that significant his lengthy career. This can be seen clearly bei the transcription des a roundtable conversation with Christopher Frayling, Philip Hoare, unterschrift Kermode, und Geoffrey Marsh in David Bowie Is. In Enchanting david Bowie, ns editors make this in explicit part des their methodological strategy:

“In preparing ns manuscript, we also asked our contributors zu reflect zurück upon their very thoughts und responses to our call zum contributions, summarizing these for inclusion in the volume. We oase included these personal accounts as part of the respective sections herein. The volume ist a labour of love und our authors show this through ns way castle personally reflect upon die reasons they individually feeling inspired zu write about ns enchantment of david Bowie.” (5)

Several of the authors an both publications mention the they mental retreating to their bedrooms as adolescents to aufführen to Bowie, who spoke directly zu their questions around gender, sexuality, identity, alienation and angst, taboo topics an their household. As Geoffrey swamp shows in David Bowie Is, the star was fairly aware des this aspect of the residential “psychogeography” (27) von his appeal. Marsh estimates Bowie as saying: “I had to retreat into my room; dafür you get in the room und you lug that ruddy room about with you for the rest des your life.” (28) the adolescent bedroom des the mind, then, provides the imaginative usual ground zum Bowie, his listeners, and the scholars who comment on his cultural significance.

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Fans, enchanted by stars, often define this illusion von intimacy; however, “enchantment” with Bowie may not be the best foundation weil das a vital appraisal des either his well-known appeal or imaginative contribution. As a catalogue zum a museum exhibition celebrating the star, David Bowie Is may not be the best place zu look zum any spicy criticism of the celebrity, and Bowie’s straight involvement make it basically impossible. However, ns tension betwee academic detachment and personal investment plagues cultural forschung more generally, and this has lang been a sore point an subcultural studies, which can tend zu be an ext celebratory und sympathetic than probing und analytical. Just Kids, of course, zu sein a memoir v no pretext von objectivity or scholastic utility; however, it ausblüten offers insight that eludes scholars that did notfall experience living at ns Chelsea Hotel in the 1970s. However, some des the contributors zu Enchanting david Bowie periodically appear kommen sie be too invested in the celebrities as fans rather 보다 academics, und Downtown Film and TV Culture does a better arbeit of pairing academic appraisals with mitarbeiter testimony von filmmakers, videographers, and archivists. Take away together, however, all four publications illuminate the importance of key celebrities such together Bowie, Mapplethorpe, and Smith and also provide an important insight into ns subcultural expressions des the 1970s und 1980s.

Bringing Patti Smith und David Bowie together bei this review des these four publications shows just how punk, glitter, und glam an New York and London helped zu transform die sexual and gender norms an arts and entertainment throughout this period. However, as ns differences bei their careers suggest, a sex hierarchy remained an place—gradually an altering with the popularity von Madonna und Lady Gaga. Back Smith und Bowie both attacked sexual borders through rock und roll often bei the same place at precisely die same moment in time, Bowie ended up being a megastar und Smith remained basically “just” a “kid.” This, des course, claims a last about sex inequality in rock music, but it also points to die distinct ways in which ns same “message” von gender rebellion und sexual liberation erupted indigenous two really different subcultures. Patti schmied serves as a “punk poetess,” when Bowie reigns as die glitter chameleon von glam rock.