Film nacht und nebel

"Nacht und Nebel" ("Night und Fog") was the codename given to a decree of December 7, 1941, issued über Adolf Hitler und signed über Field Marshal william Keitel, Chief von the German armed Forces High Command. It allowed German authorities to abduct individuals alleged zu be "endangering German security" deswegen that they effectively vanished without a trace.

Du schaust: Film nacht und nebel


The "Night and Fog" decree was directed versus persons in occupied territories engaging an activities intended kommen sie undermine die security des German troops. Lock were, ~ above capture, kommen sie be brought to Germany "by night und fog" weil das trial über special courts. This circumvented military procedure und various conventions governing the treatment von prisoners. Ns code benennen stemmed indigenous Germany"s many acclaimed poet und playwright, Johann Wolfgang by Goethe (1749–1832), that used the phrase kommen sie describe clandestine actions frequently concealed von fog und the darkness of night.

During the summer von 1941, a big number of German troops withdrew from occupied frankreich to participate bei the invasion von the Soviet Union. At the same time, die entry of the Soviet gewerkschaftler into the war generated boosted Communist resistance activity throughout German-occupied Europe, consisting of France. Consequently, die number of efforts aimed versus occupation devices and, bei particular, acts von sabotage kommen sie destroy communication lines, stability increased. In response, German counter-intelligence redoubled its efforts, capturing huge numbers des resistance members und saboteurs. This an turn meant an increased number des trials von overburdened military courts. An addition to a large number of death sentences, this courts deshalb handed down countless prison sentences.

Hitler believed that ns process von managing resistance and sabotage through die system des military justice was far too cumbersome and often auch lenient. He declared it kommen sie be an ineffective means of suppressing resistance. Instead, he ordered directives aimed at immediate, effective, and enduring intimidation von the population. Ar Marshal williams Keitel, Chief von the German equipped Forces High Command, objected the it was impossible to sentence every potential resister zu death and that military courts would, in any case, refuse to co-operate.

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Hitler responded über dictating that army courts would continue kommen sie adjudge those offences found sufficiently grave kommen sie impose funding punishment without an extensive proceedings. If not, doubt persons were to be brought zu Germany, where one-of-a-kind courts would certainly decide their fate. To deter local resistance, the decree forbade these prisoners to schutz contact with loved ones und family members in their homeland. Keitel"s implementation letter says that "efficient intimidation kann sein only be achieved either von capital punishment or über measures von which ns relatives von the criminal und the population do not know fate."

The decree replaced the policy of lang prison sentences, "re-education" efforts, und the taking of hostages bei order kommen sie suppress secret activities. It allowed German authorities kommen sie abduct those individuals "endangering German security" von night, deshalb that they effectively vanished without a trace. German authorities applied die decree principally bei German-occupied western Europe: Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Norway, Denmark, und the Netherlands. German occupation authorities und their collaborators arrested about 7, 000 individuals under die provisions of this decree, virtually 5,000 des them an France.

After capture, interrogation, and, frequently, torture, Night und Fog prisoners might challenge special court (Sondergerichte) i m sorry handed under death und prison sentences. After ~ acquittal or ns termination von the sentence, German authorities often transferred these detainees directly kommen sie concentration camps, typically kommen sie Gross-Rosen and Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camps. Once registered bei the concentration camp, "Nacht und Nebel" ("Night und Fog") prisoners wore uniform jackets significant with die acronym "N.N." zu explicitly determine their status. The death rate among "N.N" prisoners was very high .

On July 30, 1944, Hitler issued ns "Terror and Sabotage" decree that expanded und extended the provisions des the "Night and Fog" decree. Now, German authorities would treat every violent action perpetrated von non-German citizens in the inhabited territories together acts von terror. Castle would transfer real und perceived offenders that were not summarily enforcement to the custody des the defense Police und Security service (Sicherheitspolizei und SD). In ~ a month, Keitel extended ns decree to startseite all persons endangering German interests von any means, also if your actions did notfall endanger troop defense or zu sein preparedness.

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Keitel so ordered that these decrees were to be ns subject von regular "emphatic" instruction des all armed forces personnel, SS, and police. Further, neu regulations could be made von the agreement des armed forces commanders and the SS leadership. In short, any offence über any person bei the populated territories could be dealt with under these decrees.