14 Punkte Programm Wilson

The war he dafür dreaded broke out an early ehrenvoll 1914. In ~ a few days, the spark lit in Sarajevo had end up being a basic conflagration. Henri Lambert constantly strove to hasten the end of this fatal madness. He multiplied his contacts, including within pacifist circles und among society democrats, and especially punkt the ende of 1916, when ns United claims was blieb neutral, through Colonel House, president Wilson"s right hand man. Despairing of Europe’s leaders, he saw an Wilson the only hope.
His position as a free agent, a person above the fray, had allowed him to address ns belligerents top top both sides. Everyone knows that an such circumstances the supporters of the neben involved each host exclusive friendships und that because of this Henri Lambert’s position, alone und apart, was not very easy to maintain. The nevertheless defended his ideas und his evaluation with tenacity, developing und constantly repeating them, occasionally writing articles bei newspapers or magazines, sometimes much more substantial studies, und all this an English and French as well as in German.

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Meanwhile, from late 1916 zu the end of 1918 that came into continous personal contact with Colonel House. V him, Henri Lambert exercised a discreet but strong influence through the introduction of the an essential provision von economic openness (Point 3) in the well known “Fourteen Points” des President Wilson, announced in his decided of january 1918. Die "14 Points" was to be the basis of die armistice agreed on 11 november 1918. "Point 3" should have provided the essential base of the "Peace Conference" von 1919 und of die Treaty of Versailles.

During this exact same year 1917, in the vereinigte staaten von amerika Henri Lambert published two editions of his Pax Economica under die title Pax Economica: freedom des international exchange the sole method zum the permanent and universal abolition von war, v a statement des the cause and the solution of the europe crisis und a sketch of the only feasible conclusive settlement of the difficulties confronting die world. New York, 1917. During his stay in America the lasted till late December 1918, over practically two und a für hilfe years, the wrote about fifty letters to Colonel House, was received über him at die White House, and was honoured with a mention in House’s memoirs. Wie man one to know how really charged House’s diary was und how many famous surname filed right into his office, together his memoirs attest, one tun können see that ns relations betwee the two men had actually become much more than cordial.

If the memory und role von President Wilson have remained bei the windy mind, those of Colonel residence are jetzt gone except among historians. Fortunately, therefore, the remarkable new book – really precise, detailed and balanced – über historian Godfrey Hodgson reminds us von House’s exceptionally important function from 1913 until 1918-19 vis-à-vis president Wilson. We kann do no far better than to quote the words of this eminent Oxford historian:
"The importance of Colonel Edward M. House bei 20th century American international policy ist enormous: from 1913 to 1919 that served notfall only as in intimate friend and chief politics adviser to President Woodrow Wilson but so as national security adviser and senior diplomat. Yet die relationship between House and the chairman ended bei a quarrel hinweisen the paris peace conference of 1919 – greatly because von Mrs. Wilson"s hostility zu House – since wie House has received little sympathetic historic attention.”

To show his influence, us reprise below in extract native a letter indigenous Henri Lambert addressed kommen sie Colonel home dated march 12, 1917, and bei excerpt von a reply from Colonel House kommen sie Henri Lambert a few months later, October 24, 1917.

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– native a letter des Henri Lambert zu Colonel home – in march 12, 1917:

“ ... Ich persist an my hopefulness. Des course, today’s international law of neutrality ist not started on true international ethics. Also so, ns only thing to do zu sein to apply it as it is, follow to die letter von it. Surely deshalb the whole international ‘law of war’ totally lacks true radikale principles. But die Germans oase to abide by the legislation which they schutz made, or accepted, and the only reasonable thing they tun können do is to trust the President of the blume States zu take ns right following step zum peace. I bei der not without part confidence that V. Bernstorff wollen clarify the political atmosphere and the minds an Berlin in this respect. I would like kommen sie be allowed, to ~ Colonel House, to draw your distinct attention zu what appears zu me to be a very important aspect of the European belästigung – namely, that freedom of nationalities und freedom von the seas cannot serve as causes von peace, they kann only be its consequences. Wie man it comes kommen sie practical policy, various essential considerations make it impossible, wie dealing v the frieden problem, kommen sie neglect or be silent on this two really important questions. Nevertheless, they space not basic questions, lock will not serve as ns ‘foundations’ des the edifice von a reconstructed peaceful civilisation. This edifice must, i think, be understood bei this way.” Liberty (national und individual) can only be preserved if base on security. This is what teacher Edward Grey meant an 1915, when he claimed that good Britain was ready to discuss die question des ‘freedom of the seas’ however that the condition making this freedom possible had first to it is in established. Grundlegend security zu sein economic security…”

– native a letter of Colonel House kommen sie Henri Lambert, October 24, 1917:

“The President und I had actually a lang talk tonnage night alone. We discussed the situation carefully. The again expressed pleasure that ich was kommen sie represent him, und declared once more that he would not be willing zum anyone else zu do so. An the prozess of ns conversation, i expressed ns opinion that if together a zu sein as this might be justified weist all, the justification would certainly be largely due to the fact that it had given him a commanding opportunity zum unselfish service… then he had actually laid down the principle that no land should acquire territory without die consent of the governed. Now he should lay down die doctrine the nations should be equally unselfish concerning commerce. There should be complete freedom of commerce upon ns seas, no preferential tariffs or transportation prices upon land, making die staple products und raw materials von the welt accessible kommen sie all. Ns President’s eye glistened und he rose to the argumente sympathetically.”

In this surely, die ideas shared von Henri Lambert bei his numerous letters and interviews through "dear Colonel House" had borne fruit.

On january 8, 1918, in a major speech zu Congress chairman Woodrow Wilson proposed, his 14 Point gelassenheit Plan, (the "Fourteen Points" largely developed über "The Inquiry" von Colonel House), the second des which concerned die freedom of hyperplasie on ns seas, und the third freedom of international trade (i.e. Ns removal des economic barriers and commercial equality zum all nations) zum the drafting of which Henri Lambert had functioned tenaciously in the background, ever hopeful that die latter would certainly be consisted of as the zuerst Point and the foundation des peace. He sent a telegram to the President which check out as follows: “This day, Mr. President, wollen be taped as that des the greatest, noblest und grandest utterance and act bei the history of mankind. Respectfully, Henri Lambert, manufacturer in Charleroi, Belgium.”

In the words des his son, Valentin, there ist no doubt that Henri Lambert had hoped and fought zum this Point to be erste of die fourteen. The only zuerst appeared at eleventh place, finally arriving hinweisen third. But ns outcome was not a foregone conclusion. Thus, together of januar 9, 1918, die day after the declaration, House provided that:
"I climate suggested the removal, as far as possible, von trade barriers. The suggested that this would meet with opposition, particularly an the Senate.” ns President to express reservations, having in mind die fierce protectionism von the American Republicans, angeführt by stadtrat Henry Cabot Lodge, Wilson"s politics enemy, und the really pronounced strength des American protectionism, even among Democrats.

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On november 11, 1918 ns Armistice was signed, ns Kaiser and the Reichstag having actually accepted the “14 Points”, v England and France having no selection but kommen sie rally zu it. The das was cast. On january 18, 1919 the paris Conference began that was zu lead to ns disastrous Treaty of Versailles, signed on June 28, 1919. Henri Lambert returned to Charleroi to januar 20, 1919. That resumed his industrial activities und attended to die repair und restarting of his plant, after his lang period des absence. Meanwhile, home came to stay an Paris in late 1918 kommen sie organise ns long and ultimately catastrophic negotiation of “the Peace".